In recent years, researchers from many disciplines have included the concept of "culture" among their explicatory tools. While this is a welcome development, the notion of culture used is often not scrutinised. In particular, culture is usually equated to socially learned – or "copied" – behaviour or information. In his talk, Alberto will present two models (one specific to chimpanzee populations and one more general) where "cultural" phenomena are produced without a neat distinction between social and individual learning. He will conclude by discussing in which cases conflating "culture" with "socially learned behaviour" or, related, assuming a clear distinction between individual and social learning, can be problematic in cultural evolution research.